Mozambique is located on the Southern East part of Africa, and stretches over 2770 km along the Indian Ocean. This geographic positioning provides the country with a wide range of ecological zones and ecosystems from the evergreen forests through the semi-arid savannas, mountainous ecosystems, to riparian, coastal and marine ecosystems. It is on these ecological zones and ecosystems where the rich biodiversity of the country flourishes, with some elements of biodiversity being of high value and importance at local, regional and global levels.
The ecological zones which are considered of global importance include the Eastern Africa Ecological Region, Forest Mountains of South of Rift, Lakes of Rift Valley and Miombo Meridional and Eastern Forests and Zambezi Delta Wetland Zones among others, i.e., the Eastern Africa Ecological Region is where a variety of coral species occur. It also comprises the second longest extension of mangroves in Africa, important populations of sharks-whale and manta ray, and the only viable population of dugongs in the whole Indian Ocean. The forestry ecological zones in Mozambique host iconic species of wildlife such as elephants, buffalos, lions, hyenas, and antelopes which attract great tourism interest.
25 % of Mozambican territory is declared protected areas, comprising terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The network of conservation areas comprising 7 national parks, 12 national reserves, game hunting areas and wildlife farms.
The conservation areas are protected by law and special regulations, and efforts are coordinated at central government level for planning, management and financing of conservation areas activities through the National Administration of Conservation Areas, under the Ministry of Land, Environment and Rural Development. The mobilization of financial resources for conservation, however, is still a limitation for an effective management of conservation areas and achievement of their biodiversity conservation objectives. Therefore, the BIOFIN process that the country has embarked on is a great opportunity to identify potential sources of financing for biodiversity conservation and most importantly, to identify the best alternatives for biodiversity conservation investment to maximize the conservation outcomes while promoting sustainable development of communities. On the other hand, the government of Mozambique is committed to mainstreaming the biodiversity conservation into wider government planning instruments and sectors, including civil society. The approval of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) in December 2015 provides strong government commitment on biodiversity conservation and promotion of sustainable development goals.
The activities conducted under the BIOFIN process in Mozambique to-date are the establishment of the BIOFIN National Team and consultations with key actors from relevant line ministries for the establishment of a steering committee. The main Implementing Agents of the BIOFIN process in Mozambique are the Ministry of Land, Environment and Rural Development and the Ministry of Economy and Finance